Toxicology 101 for Attorneys

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Course Information

Time 90 Minutes
Difficulty Intermediate

Course Description

This program will provide a broad overview of what attorneys need to know about the science of toxicology in order to effectively navigate their drugs and alcohol related cases. The course will cover the effects of alcohol as well as common street and prescription drugs on the body, the science of interpreting drug screens, how alcohol absorption can be delayed or increased, and the connection between drug levels and impairment. 

Taught by board-certified toxicologist Allison Muller and criminal defense attorney Scott Fenstermaker, this program will establish useful basic principles for attorneys seeking to understand the science behind drug and alcohol-related impairment. 

Learning Objectives:

  1. List the expected effects on the body from common street and prescription drugs
  2. Differentiate between drug/alcohol levels obtained from blood, urine, breath
  3. Identify common false positives when interpreting drug screen results
  4. Assess the utility of drug levels for commonly encountered street and legal drugs
  5. Describe the correlation between drug and alcohol levels and level of impairment

Credit Information

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Dr. Allison Muller


Dr. Allison Muller is a board-certified toxicologist (D.ABAT), fellow of the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (FAACT), and registered pharmacist with over 20 years’ experience in the field of clinical toxicology. After a nearly 20-year career leading the Poison Control Center at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, which included consulting on toxicology cases from 21 counties in Pennsylvania and Delaware, Dr. Muller is presently an independent consultant specializing in medical communications and providing expert witness testimony on cases involving medications, alcohol, chemicals, and environmental toxins. She is also adjunct faculty, teaching pharmacology and toxicology to second-year veterinary medicine students, at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine.

Scott Fenstermaker

Scott L. Fenstermaker, P.C

I am an attorney with a keen interest in the inherent imbalance between the power of the state and the relative weakness of the individual.  I bring this interest to my work as a criminal defense attorney and tax controversy litigator. I developed my skills and client-focused approach during my over 22 years of legal experience.  With over 30 years of experience handling government-related matters, including having worked for the United States and New York City governments, I have the experience to handle any government-related matter.  My skills include representing clients in pre-arrest investigations, grand jury investigations, wiretapping and eavesdropping investigations, arrests, arraignments, pretrial litigation, pretrial discovery, pretrial motion practice, jury and bench trials, post-conviction motions, sentencings, appeals, and tax controversies, whether criminal or civil in nature, at the federal, state, and local levels.

I have extensive experience handling the full range of criminal defense matters including, but not limited to;

  • white collar defense matters
    • mail, bank, and wire frauds
    • money laundering
    • grand larceny
    • embezzlement
    • securities fraud
    • tax fraud and tax evasion
  • violent crimes
    • murder
    • arson
    • kidnapping
    • assault
    • domestic violence
    • bank robbery
    • weapons possession
  • crimes of a sexual nature
    • rape
    • sexual assault
    • possession and transmission of child pornography
    • human trafficking
  • drug-related crimes
    • narcotics trafficking and possession

I have tried dozens of cases in the federal and state courts in New York and Massachusetts and have handled a number of high-profile, politically-related prosecutions that drew worldwide media attention, including controversial matters with the U.S. government. I appeared in and before the United States and world-wide media, including independent media outlets.

I am a seasoned advocate in tax dispute matters, whether your issue involves criminal or quasi-criminal aspects, civil penalties, or merely the assertion of an underlying civil tax liability. I successfully defeated criminal tax investigations, defended criminal tax prosecutions, and handled the full gamut of civil tax dispute matters. I benefit from a network of tax-related professionals, including forensic accountants, former IRS special agents, former state tax investigators, and economists.

I graduated from Harvard Law School in 1992 with honors, where I began my criminal defense practice as a member of the Harvard Voluntary Defenders.  I hold an advanced degree, or LL.M., in the law of taxation from the New York University School of Law.  As such, I am well equipped to handle criminal tax litigation as well as civil tax controversies, whether before the federal, state, or local governments.

I began my legal career as a prosecutor and assistant district attorney with the Office of the Manhattan District Attorney. While serving there, I prosecuted white collar, fraud, embezzlement, employee misconduct, violent street crime, weapons possession, domestic violence, and narcotics trafficking and possession cases. Among my cases was a nationally-televised prosecution of a New York City employee for employment-related fraudulent misconduct.

Additionally, I am experienced litigating pursuant to the Uniform Code of Military Justice and am prepared to assist service members confronted with issues within the military criminal justice system.